The creation of perfumes is an art and tradition that began with the ancient Greeks, was improved by the Arabs and has been perfected over time to date. Scientific and technical advances have allowed the different perfume formulas to be increasingly complex, however, the scent notes and essences remain the same, as we will see shortly.
In this article we explain what the main essences of perfumes are and what is the manufacturing process of them. Read on to find out about it.
Types of fragrances: colognes, perfumes and aromatic waters
The first thing we must make clear, first of all, is the difference between the type of fragrance. Although the manufacturing process used is the same, the concentration of the essence that gives the product the smell varies from one fragrance to another. Therefore, it is important to make clear what the differences are between colognes, perfumes and aromatic waters in terms of composition:
- Colonies: The percentage of fragrance in the colonies is 2% to 4%.
- Perfumes: The percentage of fragrance in perfumes is 21% to 25%.
- Eau de cologne: The fragrance percentage in this case is 5% to 12%.
- Perfume water: Fragrance percentage is 13% to 20%.
Perfumes are the most used fragrances today. These are used on special occasions, to emphasize a state of mind or a characteristic, to evoke memories, to reinforce our image and values … To date we can find a large number of perfumes on the market, as well as different brands specialized in their manufacturing, like the ones you can see in Pacoperfumerias.com —Which are available at lower prices than usual. At Paco Perfumerías you can also find niche perfumes, these stand out for their exclusivity – since only a few of them are manufactured – and are made up of more pure and natural elements than in the case of commercial perfumes.
Main essences of perfumes
When we talk about the main essences of niche perfumes we must consider the olfactory families of each of them. These are classified into 7 large groups in which the ingredients most used for the elaboration of the fragrances of the perfumes are collected. You must bear in mind that the main perfumeries what they seek to achieve is that the proportions of the ingredients are adequate to make it smell great and without altering the properties of one or the other. These are the main olfactory families of perfumes:
- Citrus: We find some citrus fruits such as orange, lemons, grapefruit or bergamot.
- flowers: Widely used in women’s fragrances. In this case, the rose, jasmine, lily of the valley, daffodils and violet stand out.
- Woods: We find some elements such as sandalwood, cedar, patchouli or pine.
- Leathers: Widely used in men’s fragrances. In this case we find the leather itself, burnt wood and even tobacco.
- Oriental: With elements such as vanilla or rockrose-laudanum.
- Cyprus: In this case, different components stand out, such as the top moss, bergamot or patchouli.
- Ferns: Like lavenders, woods, cumin or top moss.
The manufacturing process of the essential oils that are used as a base for perfumes can be carried out artificially in a laboratory – they are the most common and are obtained through chemical reactions that reproduce natural aromas – or in a natural way – it uses the natural essence, as some exclusive brands continue to do, although this makes the final price more expensive.
How are perfumes created
There are 4 methods of manufacturing perfumes, depending on the ingredients used. These are:
- Distillation: It is the most used to obtain the essence of plants, flowers or herbs. In this case, the vegetable part that contains the essence is crushed and then water is added to allow the mixture to marinate for a while. Next, the distillation is carried out separating the solids from the steam – together with the aromatic components. These are cooled in a distillation column and collected in a container.
- Expression: This method is used, above all, for fruits. What is done in this case is to squeeze their crusts by piercing them and compressing them mechanically. The extract obtained is decanted and filtered to separate the aqueous parts from those containing the essential oils.
- Extraction: Extraction is a method used in the manufacture of perfumes obtained from delicate plants and flowers. What is done, in this case, is to put the vegetal elements in contact with solvents, which absorb the essence. These volatile solvents are removed by vaporization.
- Maceration: Currently this method is obsolete, since it is the oldest of all. This was used on fragile flowers. What was done, in this case, was to collect the petals of the flowers and put them in a thin layer on a film of animal fat on a glass plate. Afterwards, the petals were removed and the process was repeated until the fat was saturated, thus obtaining an ointment with intense aromas.
Perfumes contain a mixture of various ingredients that can be natural or synthetic. These are mixed with solvents — usually alcohol — and a fixative, in addition to demineralized water.