The rose, the empress of the garden -

The rose affects almost all of our senses: sight, smell, taste, and touch. Its colors vary between infinite shades of white, yellow, orange, pink, red, and even combined thanks to its numerous hybrids; its intense and sweet fragrance can be reminiscent of musk, tea, honey, or lemon; to the touch, its petals are soft, smooth and velvety.

Description of the plant

The rose plant or rose bush is a shrub of the family of the Rosaceae, to whose family other species also belong such as raspberries, cherry trees, apple trees, pear trees, quinces, almond trees and peach trees.

The vigorous and branched roots are separated from the stem by the neck.
The leaves of the rose bush are compound, and can contain between five, seven, eleven and even thirteen leaflets. They are oval with serrated edges, and dark green and bluish-green on the reverse.
The spines are mutations of the leaves that, depending on the variety, can reach remarkable dimensions.
Its flowers, the roses, depending on the variety in question, are more or less fragrant, although they all have a characteristic perfume. The shape, although easily recognizable, is also variable; There are more flat ones, with single or double petals that are almost flat or that curve slightly inwards; Some are pointed, more closed and elongated with the petals tighter together; and finally, there are more open and domed, double or extra-double, with a greater number of overlapping petals.

Hybrid red tea rose

Classification of roses

There are more than twenty thousand varieties of roses around the world, so their classification can be tedious; however, roses can be classified by separating them into three large groups: roses botanical, the ancient, and the modern; within the latter are the best known varieties.

Botanical roses: this group contains the most primitive varieties from which modern rose varieties are descended. They are rustic, upholstery or climbing shrubs, with dense foliage and simple flowers with five petals or semi-double, highly perfumed. After flowering, the berries can remain on the plant for several months, giving them a decorative detail.

Old roses: the rose bushes that make up this group are very numerous, and their characteristics very heterogeneous.
The varieties belong to this group gallica rose, damask rose, centifolia rose, tea rose and rugosa rose, among many others.

Modern roses: Among the characteristics of the rose bushes of this group we can highlight the robust bearing of the plants, the regular and abundant reflowering, the large and unique flower with long and rigid stems, with an outstanding center corolla, which make them the most suitable for Contemplate in the garden or to decorate with cut flowers.
Its range of colors is very wide, and its exuberant flowering extends from the beginning of summer until late fall.
Among the varieties of this group are the tea hybrids (the best known today), large-flowered rose bushes (Grandiflora) and the rose bushes (roses Floribunda); the latter have flowers in clusters of abundant and prolonged flowering.

Red floribunda rose

The bush rose bushes they are also within this group. In these rose bushes, the branches are born from the base, giving them a great bearing, being able to reach two meters in height. Their lush and long flowering, together with their vigorous and robust appearance make them ideal for isolated planting in the garden.

And finally, although designed for larger spaces or gardens, we cannot forget the climbing roses, which due to their characteristic long and flexible branches and large flowers are ideal for covering bars and galleries, or for decorating walls. There are two types: Climber (with stiff stems with few leaves and abundant flowering, although somewhat disorderly in appearance), and the Rambler (With numerous flexible stems that arise from the base of the rosebush, giving a more elegant appearance).

Climbing rose on a bridge

How to grow roses

To display all their colors and aromas, rose bushes need a sunny place to develop; it is in full sun that they exhibit abundant flowering and grow strong. Intense lighting also enhances the liveliness of its colors.

However, they should not be exposed to the sun for more than seven or eight hours a day, or to a temperature that exceeds 35 ° C, since their leaves, buds and flowers may fall.

The planting of the rose bush should be carried out preferably in the cold months, although in the case of plants with a root ball, the transplant can be carried out at any time of the year, since the roots are already secured.

The ground where it is going to be planted must be previously prepared, since the rose bush requires a substrate very rich in organic substances; it may be convenient to add manure or mineral fertilizers.

If the soil is not porous enough, it will be necessary to add a good amount of sand or peat.

To plant our rose bush in the garden, a 40 × 40 × 40 cm hole must be dug and the roots of the plant placed in the center; the soil is then filled in and compressed around the roots. If several rose bushes are to be planted together, a minimum distance of 40-50 cm must be respected between one plant and another, which will have to be increased the larger the size of the specimens.

If we are going to fertilize in order to have vigorous plants, with abundant foliage and a greater number of flowers, it must be taken into account that the nutrients that the rose is capable of absorbing in greater quantity are potassium and nitrogen, followed by phosphorus. and iron.

In spring regular abundant waterings are necessary, every 7 or 8 days and preferably in the morning, so that the plant has enough time to absorb the water, and thus avoid the formation of molds.

The root zone that absorbs the water and nutrients the most is the youngest and furthest from the trunk, so it should be watered in a fairly wide area.

Hybrid red tea rose

Pruning the rosebush

As in most species, in the rose bush it is advisable to prune during rest, towards the end of winter when growth stops.

In bush roses, three or four well-formed buds should be left on the chosen branches; in shrub rose bushes and climbing plants, it is advisable to do reduction pruning.

The cuts should be made cleanly and obliquely, a little above the bud, to prevent water from entering it.

Depending on the objective with which the different prunings are carried out, several types can be distinguished:

  • Sanitary: it is the one that is carried out to eliminate dry or diseased branches;
  • Thinning: it is carried out when the variety of rose is abundant in branches, and it is necessary to cut this excessive growth to favor the entry of light and air to the plant;
  • Formation: it is done when you want to modify the formation of the rose bush to give it a certain shape;
  • Reduction: takes place when the ends or tips of the branches are cut to favor branching and flower production, as well as stimulating the formation of lateral buds.

Pink roses

The multiplication of rose bushes

The simplest and most suitable way of multiplication to reproduce rose bushes is through cuttings.

Depending on the part of the branch from which the cutting is taken, it can be knot, in which the fragment is cut at a central point of the branch, between one node and another, or it can be on end, wherein the branch fragment includes the tip or branch tip bud.

The branches chosen for the cuttings should have a semi-woody consistency, when the color changes from dark green to brown, and their length should cover two or three nodes.

Cuttings should be rooted in a very light and airy mixture of vermiculite and peat, or directly in sand.

They should be kept in the shade in a sheltered place, preferably in individual containers, being moistened frequently with a water spray.

Rosebush of red roses

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